Public participation

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An open, accountable process through which individuals and groups within selected communities can exchange views and influence decision-making & Public participation is a democratic process of engaging people in thinking, deciding, planning, and playing an active part in the development and operation of services that affect their lives.(the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1973)


1.People are dissatisfied with the current urban planning method(one way).
2.New technologies like web2.0 and PPGIS enhance the use of public participation.


1.Citizens are satisfied with the current urban constructions.
2.There are no convenient ways to cooperate in public participation way.

Reference 1.Australia South Africa Local Governance Partnership