How does the political system in Western countries influence city development?

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The government’s aim with the ‘Randstad 2040 Structural Vision’ is to turn the Randstad into a sustainable and internationally competitive leading region. The Randstad in 2040 will be a leading region of international signi?cance, and with powerful, attractive cities with convenient access by road and public transport alike. This region will have many different and attractive living environments, and suf?cient green space and water for leisure activities.

It will be climate resilient and well protected against ?ooding. Furthermore,the Randstad in 2040 will bene?t in full from Amsterdam’s metropolitan diversity and strength, and from the speci?c commanding international functions located in Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.

PORT COOPERATION The major Dutch seaports, mainport Rotterdam and, to a lesser extent, Amsterdam, occupy a central position in the international cargo network, contributing 30 billion euros (6.2 per cent) annually to GDP and providing work directly and indirectly to 240,000 people. Until 2040 international cargo ?ow is forecast to double, and container transport to quadruple. The aim is to utilize and add value to this strong position. Among other things, this would suggest more end-product manufacturing rather than only the transit of raw materials and semi-?nished products. Indeed, end products have more added value. This strategy will create new opportunities for process industries to form clusters around the port.

In due course a joint international development strategy for the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam could contribute to greater ef?ciency and an even stronger international position, with favourable consequences for large-scale investments, the environment and the claim on space. From the point of view of ef?cient public expenditure, the government will promote the cooperation between the seaports of Rotterdam, Amsterdam, the Zeeland harbours and Moerdijk, and Antwerp. The assumption is that no third Maasvlakte or expansion in the North Sea Canal area will be needed before 2020.